Eufisky - The lost book

## 好题

(1) $\displaystyle I\left( a,b \right) =I\left( \frac{a+2b}{3},\sqrt[3]{b\frac{a^2+ab+b^2}{3}} \right)$.

(2) 数列$\{a_n\},\{b_n\}$满足$a_0=a,b_0=b$,且满足$a_{n+1}=\frac{a+2b}{3},b_{n+1}=\sqrt[3]{b_n\frac{a_n^2+a_nb_n+b_n^2}{3}}$,求证$\lim_{n\to\infty}a_n=\lim_{n\to\infty}b_n=\frac{I(1,1)}{I(a,b)}$.

Ramanujan's golden ratio equation
\begin{align*}R\left( e^{-2\pi} \right) &=\frac{e^{-\frac{2\pi}{5}}}{1+\frac{e^{-2\pi}}{1+\frac{e^{-4\pi}}{1+\ddots}}}=\sqrt{\frac{5+\sqrt{5}}{2}}-\phi ,\\R\left( e^{-2\sqrt{5}\pi} \right) &=\frac{e^{-\frac{2\pi}{\sqrt{5}}}}{1+\frac{e^{-2\pi \sqrt{5}}}{1+\frac{e^{-4\pi \sqrt{5}}}{1+\ddots}}}=\frac{\sqrt{5}}{1+\left( 5^{3/4}\left( \phi -1 \right) ^{5/2}-1 \right) ^{1/5}}-\phi ,\end{align*}

\begin{align*}R(q) & = q^{\frac{1}{5}}\prod_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(1-q^{5n-1})(1-q^{5n-4})}{(1-q^{5n-2})(1-q^{5n-3})} \\ &= \cfrac{q^{1/5}}{1+\cfrac{q}{1+\cfrac{q^2}{1+\cfrac{q^3}{1+\ddots}}}}.\end{align*}

Ramanujan–Sato series,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanujan%E2%80%93Sato_series
$\frac{1}{\pi} = \frac{2 \sqrt 2}{99^2} \sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{(4k)!}{k!^4} \frac{26390k+1103}{396^{4k}}.$
Chudnovsky algorithm，https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chudnovsky_algorithm
$\frac{1}{\pi} = 12 \sum^\infty_{k=0} \frac{(-1)^k (6k)! (545140134k + 13591409)}{(3k)!(k!)^3 \left(640320\right)^{3k + 3/2}}.$此公式对$\pi$有非常好的计算性能.

Ramanujan's Hypergeometric Identity,http://mathworld.wolfram.com/RamanujansHypergeometricIdentity.html

$$\sum_{k=-\infty}^\infty 2^k = 0.$$

Plot the graphs of the functions $$f(x)=\dfrac{2(x^2+|x|-6)}{3(x^2+|x|+2)}+\sqrt{16-x^2}$$ and $$g(x)=\dfrac{2(x^2+|x|-6)}{3(x^2+|x|+2)}-\sqrt{16-x^2}$$ in $x\in[-4,4]$ on the same plane.

![enter image description here][1]

[1]: http://i.stack.imgur.com/9PdtB.jpg

$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{n^{13}}{e^{2\pi n} - 1} = \frac{1}{24}.$

sinx小于x小于tanx，Young不等式，等周问题

https://math.stackexchange.com/a/411763/165013

https://math.stackexchange.com/a/842310/165013

https://math.stackexchange.com/a/2323155/165013

https://math.stackexchange.com/a/718750/165013

https://math.stackexchange.com/a/83952/165013

https://math.stackexchange.com/a/61727/165013

## Problems of the Miklós Schweitzer Memorial Competition

1、AOPS论坛

2、匈牙利语版本

3、英文版本

4、其它试题

Suppose that $f: \mathbb{R}^+ \to \mathbb{R}^+$ is a continuous function such that for all positive real numbers $x,y$ the following is true :
$$(f(x)-f(y)) \left ( f \left ( \frac{x+y}{2} \right ) - f ( \sqrt{xy} ) \right )=0.$$
Is it true that the only solution to this is the constant function ?

For any $y \in {\bf R}^+$, there thus exists $x$ arbitrarily close to $1$ for which $f(x) \neq f(y)$, hence $f((x+y)/2) = f(\sqrt{xy})$.  By continuity, this implies that $f((1+y)/2) = f(\sqrt{y})$ for all $y \in {\bf R}^+$.  Making the substitution $z := (1+y)/2$, we conclude that $f(z) = f(g(z))$ for all $z \in {\bf R}^+$, where $g(z) := \sqrt{2z-1}$.  The function $g$ has the fixed point $z=1$ as an attractor, so on iteration and by using the continuity of $f$ we conclude that $f(z)=f(1)$ for all $z \in {\bf R}^+$, so $f$ is indeed constant.

(1950年)令$a>0,d>0$,设$$f(x)=\frac{1}{a}+\frac{x}{a(a+d)}+\cdots+\frac{x^n}{a(a+d)\cdots(a+nd)}+\cdots$$给出$f(x)$的封闭解.

\begin{align*}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{\frac{x^n}{\prod\limits_{k=0}^n{\left( a+kd \right)}}}&=\frac{\Gamma \left( \frac{a}{d} \right)}{d}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{\frac{\left( x/d \right) ^n}{\Gamma \left( \frac{a}{d}+n+1 \right)}}\\&=\frac{\Gamma \left( \frac{a}{d} \right)}{d}\gamma \left( \frac{a}{d},\frac{x}{d} \right) \left( \frac{d}{x} \right) ^{a/d}\frac{e^{x/d}}{\Gamma \left( \frac{a}{d} \right)}=\left( \frac{d}{x} \right) ^{a/d}\frac{e^{x/d}}{d}\gamma \left( \frac{a}{d},\frac{x}{d} \right) ,\end{align*}

$g(x) = x^a f(x^d)$ satifies $g'(x) = x^{a-1} + x^{d-1} g(x)$. Solve the associated differential equation and conclude.

$$\int_0^1{\frac{\arctan x}{x\sqrt{1-x^2}}dx}.$$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Prove that, for $0<x<\frac\pi{n+1}$,
$$\sin{x}-\frac{\sin{2x}}{2}+\cdots+(-1)^{n+1}\frac{\sin{nx}}{n}-\frac{x}{2}$$
is positive if $n$ is odd and negative if $n$ is even.

Since

\begin{align*}f_n(x) &= \sin{x} - \frac {\sin{2x}}{2} + \cdots + ( - 1)^{n + 1}\frac {\sin{nx}}{n} - \frac {x}{2},\\f_n'(x) &= - \mbox{Re}\left(\sum_{n = 1}^{n}z^n\right) - \frac12.\end{align*}

After some simplifications we get
$$f_n'(x) = \frac {( - 1)^{n + 1}}{2}((1 - \cos(x))\frac {\sin((n + 1)x)}{\sin(x)} + \cos((n + 1)x))$$
and $$f_n''(x) = \frac {( - 1)^{n}}{2}\frac {(n + 1)\sin(nx) + n\sin((n + 1)x)}{1 + \cos(x)}.$$
The formula for $f_n''$ shows that $( - 1)^n f$ is convex for $0 < x < \frac {\pi}{n + 1}$. Since $f_n(0) = 0$ and $f_n'(0) = \frac {( - 1)^{n + 1}}{2}$.We are ready when we can show that $( - 1)^{n + 1}f_n(\frac {\pi}{n + 1}) > 0$.

We have to distinct between two different, but very similar cases, namely $n$ is odd, and $n$ is even.
Let's restrict to the case $n$ is even.
We prove $f_{2n}(\frac {\pi}{2n + 1}) < 0$.

\begin{align*}f_{2n}\left( \frac{\pi}{2n+1} \right) &=\sum_{k=1}^{2n}{\left( -1 \right)}^{k+1}\frac{\sin \left( \frac{k\pi}{2n+1} \right)}{k}-\frac{\pi}{2\left( 2n+1 \right)}\\&=\frac{\pi}{2n+1}\left( \sum_{k=1}^n{\frac{\sin \left( \frac{\left( 2k-1 \right) \pi}{2n+1} \right)}{\frac{\left( 2k-1 \right) \pi}{2n+1}}}-\sum_{k=1}^n{\frac{\sin \left( \frac{2k\pi}{2n+1} \right)}{\frac{2k\pi}{2n+1}}} \right) -\frac{\pi}{2\left( 2n+1 \right)}.\end{align*}

The function $x \mapsto \frac {\sin(x)}{x}$ is descending on $[0,\pi]$, thus
both sums lay between $a$ and $a + \frac {2\pi}{2n + 1}$, where $a = \int_0^{\pi}\frac {\sin(x)}{x}\,dx$.

Thus $$f_{2n}\left(\frac {\pi}{2n + 1}\right) < \frac {\pi}{2n + 1}\cdot\frac {2\pi}{2n + 1} - \frac {\pi}{2(2n + 1)} < 0.$$